flagella flagella  /flə ˈdʒɛ lə/


  1. (n) a whip used to inflict punishment (often used for pedantic humor)
  2. (n) a lash-like appendage used for locomotion (e.g., in sperm cells and some bacteria and protozoa)


  1. The micrographs clearly show membranes, nuclei, sometimes surrounding capsules and whiplike appendages called flagella.
  2. If, for instance, a hostile substance is introduced into its surroundings, the bacterium uses its flagella long, hairlike appendagesto swim away from it.
  3. Among other things, optical tweezers can keep a tiny organism swimming in place while scientists study its paddling flagella under a microscope.


  • High-angle helix helps bacteria swim

    It's counterintuitive but true: Some microorganisms that use flagella for locomotion are able to swim faster in gel-like fluids such as mucus. Research engineers have now figured out why. It's the angle of the coil that matters.
    on August 13, 2013     Source: Science Daily

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artful artful
/ˈɑrt fəl /